The mining sector accounts for a quarter of all economic activity in the province and is also the largest single sector, providing employment to 25 percent of the province’s workforce.
The major mining activity in the province is centered on the coal and lignite industry. Mpumalanga contributes 83 percent of all coal produced in South Africa, making it the world’s third-largest coal-exporting region.
Towns such as eMalahleni (Witbank) and Middelburg in the Nkangala District Municipality are at the centre of the coal mining industry.

Mpumalanga’s coal mining industry is developing as a significant attractor of both foreign and local direct investment in the province.

A significant percentage of the province’s coal is exported to countries such as China, India South Korea and Japan.